Trend Quiz 2 -- Answers
1. D As you move down a family more energy levels are added. This is a more important/significant influence on size than the addition of protons, so the atoms get bigger.
2. A As you move across a period the shielding effect is relatively constant. Increased protons hold the valence shell tighter, which causes ionization energy to increase.
3. A As atomic numbers increase you are moving down a family. More shielding effect (inner shell electrons) means that the valence shell is not held as tightly, so ionization energy decreases.
4. B Ionization energies are always postitive which means that energy is put into the process of removing electrons. "Energy in" means things get more unstable.
5. A. More protons with relatively constant shielding effect means that electrons will be held tighter.
6. D. As you move up a family there are fewer inner shell electrons, so there is less shielding.
7. B. Barium has 2 valence electrons, so it tends to lose them.
8. D. Electron Affinity can either be positive or negative depending on the atom. You don't know the atom identity, so you cannot determine what happened with respect to stability.
9. D. The transition elements of the 5th series are filling in the 4d sublevel.
10. A. Oxygen is the smallest atom listed and is most likely to GAIN electrons, a non-metallic property.
11. B. Scandium is farthest to the left in the 4th series.
12. A. Metals tend to lose electrons, which means they do not attract them very well.
13. A. Elements in the same family have the same number of valence electrons which means they will have similar properties.
14. B. Elements that are "far apart" on the periodic table will have a large difference in electronegativity. (remember, we eliminated choice C)
15. A. Both electronegativity and ionization energy increase from left to right. (Because there are more protons while shielding is relatively constant.)
16. A This is just a definition.
17. B. Aluminum has three valence electrons, so it loses three electrons relatively easily. The 4th electron has to come from the next lower energy level, so it is very difficult to remove.
18. B. Putting energy into a process makes the resulting particle have more configurational/potential energy and makes it more unstable.
19. A. Removing electrons always takes energy, so "energy out" means the atom must have gained an electron.
20. E. The only atoms with positive electron affinities are s2 and p6 elements. None of these elements were s2 or p6.
21. D. Each oxygen atom would gain 2 electrons, so three atoms of oxygen would gain 6 electrons. Two atoms of the other element would have to give the six electrons, so the atom would need to have three valence electrons. The atom listed with three valence electrons was Al.